A Failing Strategy: Pakistan’s Kashmir Doctrine Stumbles

The Kashmir doctrine of Pakistan has been a contentious and complex issue, marked by decades of geopolitical tension and conflict. This doctrine is rooted in historical, religious and political factors, and it outlines Pakistan’s claim over the region of Kashmir. However, its implementation has faced significant challenges and has been met with domestic and international criticism. Despite the country’s persistent efforts to assert its influence and to foster turmoil in the region, several factors have contributed to the failure of this doctrine and the rejection of the narrative by the international community.

Firstly, the historical context surrounding the Kashmir dispute has been a critical obstacle. The region’s accession to India in 1947, followed by the First Indo-Pakistan War, laid the groundwork for a protracted conflict. Pakistan’s initial attempts to alter the status quo through military means not only failed but also intensified tensions, solidifying the Line of Control and creating a deeply entrenched territorial dispute. International dynamics have also played a crucial role in impeding the success of Pakistan’s Kashmir doctrine. The United Nations’ involvement and resolutions to find a peaceful solution have not yielded tangible results because Pakistan repeatedly intervened in the peace process. The international community’s reluctance to intervene forcefully has limited Pakistan’s options, preventing a decisive resolution in its favour. Additionally, global power politics, particularly the relations between India and major world powers, have often overshadowed the Kashmir issue on the international stage. For a long time, Pakistan used the Kashmir cause to gain sympathy from fellow Islamic countries. However, Kashmiris, over time, understood its nefarious designs of derailing the youth into terrorism. The tampered religious literature that was once propagated in Jamat e Islami (JeI) run institutions stands exposed. The radical ulemas who once spoke venom have now lost their moral authority. Kashmiris had come a long way from being befooled by Jihaad and other regressive doctrines.

Furthermore, Pakistan’s use of non-state actors and proxy warfare tactics in Kashmir has had detrimental consequences. While aiming to leverage asymmetric warfare to gain the upper hand, these tactics led to accusations of cross-border terrorism, further isolating Pakistan diplomatically. The international community’s growing concerns about terrorism and its impact on regional stability have eroded support for Pakistan’s stance on Kashmir. Domestic factors within Pakistan have also contributed to the failure of the Kashmir doctrine. Political instability, governance challenges, and economic issues have diverted attention and resources away from the cause of Kashmir. Public sentiment alone cannot sustain a long-term policy without effective governance and financial stability. The part of Kashmir illegally occupied by Pakistan is underdeveloped and lacking in infrastructure and public facilities. The region has been on the boil for the last few years due to inflation and other related governance issues. The people of PoK are openly showing their support for amalgamation with the Indian part of Jammu and Kashmir. PoK has been backwards in comparison to our part of Jammu and Kashmir, which is adding to the unrest that is now entering its worst phase. This has also added to the failure of Pakistan’s Failure of Kashmir Doctrine.

Moreover, the evolving demographics in Jammu and Kashmir have posed additional challenges for Pakistan. India’s abrogation of Article 370 and 35A in 2019 and the subsequent reorganisation of the region into two union territories altered the political landscape. This moves garnered support from a segment of the local population, challenging Pakistan’s narrative and complicating its efforts to rally international backing for the Kashmir cause. The changing geopolitical landscape, with a focus on economic partnerships and regional stability, has prompted some nations to prioritise pragmatism over supporting Pakistan’s position on Kashmir. As global dynamics shift, countries are increasingly reluctant to align with policies that may jeopardise their economic and strategic interests.

the failure of the Kashmir doctrine in Pakistan can be attributed to a combination of historical, international, domestic and demographic factors. Additionally, the terrorism that Pakistan sponsored in Kashmir is the foremost cause of its failure. Kashmiris are fed up with the innocent killings of civilians at the hands of Pak-backed terrorist outfits. The complexities surrounding the dispute, coupled with shifting global dynamics and Pakistan’s strategic choices, have hindered the successful implementation of its Kashmir policy. As the region grapples with ongoing challenges, a comprehensive and multilateral approach may be essential to finding a sustainable resolution to the Kashmir issue.                                           

Ideas, Opinions and Views expressed in articles are Writer’s own and may not be in accord with those of The Morn

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